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死亡邊界剝離的漸進式 The Death Boundrary Progressive Stripping

徐佳得 CHIA-TE,HSU

死亡邊界剝離的漸進式 _ 可適應性的喪禮空間,每個人都有好好說最後一次再見的權利 The Death Boundrary Progressive Stripping _ Adaptable Funeral Space,Everyone Has The Entitlement To Say Goodbye For The Last Time 作者名稱 Author l 徐佳得 CHIA-TE,HSU 指導教授 Advisor l 呂兆民 CHAO-MING,LU 基地位置 Site l 臺灣新北市立殯儀館(板橋殯儀館)New Taipei City Funeral Home, Taiwan 新冠肺炎(Covid-19)起源自2019年12月8日,距今已發生了一年多,在各國國家帶來大量病情且產生諸多集中死亡現象,沒有足夠空間應對此狀況的國家,發生了屍體堆放在街上、集體火化等等現象,生者與死者之間道德倫理也有所變化。 1963年,無人認領的遺骸埋葬在紐約市哈特島(Hart Island)上。這片島上公墓成為部分新冠肺炎罹難者的最後安息之地,由於這座公墓由矯正司管控,民眾未曾獲准登島拜訪所愛之人的墳墓,整體儀式的流程也僅有受刑人保持著敬意下葬。我也開始反思喪禮的珍貴性,而是否有能力還原這份感動。  臺灣殯葬空間一直以來存在著設施、環境老舊與供給不符的問題,再面對生死離別的整體儀式像是一個程序,空間的型態與儀式的本質並無緊密的關聯,情感上的宣洩在現今的殯儀空間中往往無法完全體現。板橋殯儀館是新北市主要舉行告別式的場地,但其已有35年的歷史,也因為歷史久遠,其空間已不符合現今的需求量,在車流及人行動線上也不安全,試圖改變其問題,作為一個實驗性的殯葬設計基地。而在新北市的人如果想要完成整個儀式,需要在板橋殯儀館進行完告別式後,並經由20-30分鐘的車程前往三峽火葬場進行燃燒,方能完成整個儀式,而政府已推動一元化殯葬園區政策已久,故嘗試在此基地增設火葬場讓整體儀式更加的完整化。  整體的策略分為兩部分,從實際解決現存殯葬設施共有的問題為目標;提高環境的空間品質,共用的環境場所的品質提升與情境轉化讓所有人都能獲得對等的說再見的權利。整個設計上以垂直動線為主軸,將原本的停車場垂直化後,使人與車的動線分割,前來參加告別式的人能更方便的搭乘電梯到達會場,家屬之間也能擁有更多的獨立空間;靈堂的形式採取模矩化的型態,因應未來可以往上加蓋的可能性。疫情的應對,解剖室及火葬場也分為一般用及緊急用,在火葬場也以玻璃作為阻隔,讓家屬人進行最後一次的道別。最後我期望殯儀館是可以讓人不再畏懼的空間,整體的設計運用高程差創造視線的差異,讓人能夠漸進式的選擇觀看與不觀看,並歸還38%綠地於基地,開放了許多公共空間,讓人休憩,也讓前來走最後一段路的家屬感受到更高的空間、治喪品質。  Covid-19 originated on December 8, 2019, more than a year has passed since then, in countries that have brought a large number of illnesses and a large number of concentrated deaths, there is not enough room for this situation in countries where bodies have been piled up in the streets, mass cremation and so on, and the moral ethics between the living and the dead have changed.In 1963, unclaimed remains were buried on Hart Island in New York City. The island cemetery became the final resting place for some of the victims of new crown pneumonia, and since the cemetery was controlled by the Department of Corrections, the public was not allowed to visit the graves of loved ones on the island, and the whole ceremony was carried out with respect only by the condemned. I also began to reflect on the preciousness of the funeral, and whether it is able to restore this touch.  Taiwan funeral space has always existed facilities, the environment is old and supply of the problem, and then face the whole ritual of life and death parting like a procedure, the pattern of space and the nature of the ceremony is not closely related, emotional catharsis in today's funeral space is often not fully reflected. Banqiao Funeral Home is the main farewell venue in New Taipei City, but it has a history of 35 years, but also because of its long history, its space has not met the current demand, in the traffic and human action line is not safe, trying to change its problems, as an experimental funeral design base. And if people in New Taipei City want to complete the whole ceremony, they need to complete the farewell ceremony at Panqiao Funeral Home, and through 20-30 minutes drive to the Three Gorges Crematorium for burning, can complete the whole ceremony, and the government has been promoting the policy of a monistic funeral park for a long time, so try to add crematoriums at this base to make the whole ceremony more complete. The overall strategy is divided into two parts, from the practical solution of existing funeral facilities common problems as the goal, improve the quality of the environment space, the quality of shared environmental sites and situational transformation so that everyone can get the right to say goodbye.  The whole design to vertical dynamic line as the main axis, the original parking lot vertical, make people and the car's moving line split, people who come to participate in the farewell style can take the elevator to reach the meeting venue more convenient, family members can also have more independent space;  The response to the outbreak, anatomical rooms and crematoriums are also divided into general and emergency use, in crematoriums are also kept separated by glass, allowing family members to say their last goodbyes.  Finally, I hope that the funeral home can no longer be afraid of space, the overall design of the use of elevation difference to create line-of-sight differences, so that people can gradually choose to watch and do not watch, and return 38% of the green space in the base, open a lot of public space, let people rest, but also let the family who came to the last section of the road feel higher space, funeral quality.